Dr Hilary Cass

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Dr Hilary Cass is a British medical doctor and a consultant in paediatric disability at St Thomas' Hospital, London. She was the President of the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health from 2012 to 2015.

Hilary Cass

In September 2020, she accepted to lead the independent Cass Review for the NHS into gender identity services for children and young people.[1].

The interim report of the Cass Review was published in February 2022. It said that the rise in referrals had led to the staff being overwhelmed, and recommended the creation of a network of regional hubs to provide care and support to young people. The report noted that the clinical approach used by GIDS "has not been subjected to some of the usual control measures" typically applied with new treatments, and raised concerns about the lack of data collection by GIDS.[2].

The impetus for the closure of GIDS was the review by Hilary Cass. Her interim report said there was too little known about the effects of blockers, which prevent the development of secondary sexual characteristics. Dr Cass also warned that “social transition”—when a person changes their name and clothing to fit with their gender identity—is no “neutral act” but can effect “psychological functioning” [3] [4].

Dr Cass's final report was published in April 2024. The report found that 'Children have been let down by a lack of research and "remarkably weak" evidence on medical interventions in gender care' [5].


  1. Marsh, Sarah (22 September 2020). "NHS to hold review into gender identity services for children and young people". theguardian.com. Guardian
  2. Bannerman, Lucy (10 March 2022). "Tavistock gender clinic not safe for children, report finds". The Times. Archived from the original on 29 March 20
  3. Britain changes tack in its treatment of trans-identifying children The Economist 17 November 2022
  4. Former clinicians at the Gender Identity Development Service (Gids), part of the Tavistock and Portman NHS Trust in London, have detailed how some “incredibly complex” children were placed on medication after one face-to-face assessment, despite many having a variety of mental health or family background problems. From 'Time to Think: The Inside Story of the Collapse of the Tavistock’s Gender Service for Children' by Hannah Barnes (2023)
  5. https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-68770641 BBC 10 April 2024